The leader of the anti-Qing uprising in the early 20th century-South-Sun North-tao, anti-Qing Restore Countrys

     

 

 

 

At the beginning of the last century, at the end of the Qing Dynasty, two great uprising heroes appeared in the South and North, Sun Yat-sen and To-k-tao-hu. Their uprising shook the rule of the Qing Dynasty and contributed to the demise of the autocratic rule that lasted for more than two thousand years.
In the autumn of 2019, we visited and checked the locations of the To-k-tao -hu uprising and fought in the fall of 2019, based on the records in relevant books, positioning, sketching, taking pictures, and forming this text to commemorate.

                ——Once the grassland

 

 

The leader of the anti-Qing uprising in the early 20th century-Nansun Beitao, anti-Qing rejuvenation and a century of ecology

Chen Jiqun    November 12, 2016

 

 

Figure 1. Anti-Qing leaders Sun Yat-sen and Tok Taohu, and the political background of farming civilization and nomadic civilization after the fall of the Qing Dynasty.

 

 

 
Figure 2. A portrait of Sun Yat-sen in Tiananmen Square in Beijing in 2021.

 


Figure 3. The statue of Tao Ketao Hu in the Genghis Khan Cultural Park in Songyuan City, Jilin Province in 2019

 

 

Figure 4. Zhang Zuolin, leader of the Qing Dynasty

 

Zhang Zuolin, the commander of the Qing Dynasty, ordered to encircle and suppress Taoketaohu
 


Zhang Zuolin in Hongxian's imperial costume

 

 

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      History background

 

There were two leaders of China’s anti-Qing uprising from 1906 to 1910, Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925) in the south and Taoketaohu (1864-1922) in the north. Together, their uprisings shook the rule of the Qing Dynasty-Sun Yat-sen raised funds in Foreign countries have commanded the Southern Uprising nearly ten times, with repeated defeats and battles; Tauktauhu fought in the northern grasslands for four years.

 

In the 17th century, the Qing Dynasty (later Jin) entered the Guan, and invaded the land of the Ming Dynasty. The Emperor Kangxi of the Qing suppressed Geldan at the end of the 17th century and obtained the jade seal of the Northern Yuan Dynasty. So far, the Qing Dynasty occupied the territory of the Ming Dynasty and occupied the grassland land in the Northern Yuan Dynasty. , And divided the Mongolian tribes into the 49 banners of Inner Mongolia and the three major institutions of Outer Mongolia.  
 

Toktahu was born in Guoerluosqianqi, Zhelimu League, Inner Mongolia in 1864. Beginning in 1902, the Qing dynasty used the pretext of "immigrants to real borders" in East Mongolia, adding yamen, sending soldiers to seize pastures and land.

 

"In 1905, Tauktahu was in conflict with the Qing government because of his opposition to the reclamation of grasslands. In the early morning of September 23, 1906, Tauktahu led his three sons, Deliger, Naima, Nutktu, and his relatives. Eight people including Danzhab, Hada, Zamsu and Fusang, as well as 32 people including righteous friends Saijilahu, Nashunbatu and Erdenidalai, formally sworn uprising, and then attacked Erlong Suokou. The Bureau of Reclamation had seized more than 20 guns. It also raided Maolin Station at 11 o'clock that night, captured and executed 12 Japanese surveying and mapping personnel and the defending soldiers, and confiscated a large number of guns, ammunition and military uniforms."  ——<Mongolian Nationality General History Taoketao's Armed Anti-Reclamation Uprising>

 

From then on, the Tauktao Hu Rebel Army fought against Xu Shichang, governor of the three eastern provinces of the Qing Dynasty, Zhang Zuolin, guard envoy, and dozens of soldiers from Inner and Outer Mongolia. In 1910, in the battle of Qaidam in Guriban in the northern part of Ximeng, Inner Mongolia, the eldest son of Toktahu, Deliger, died in battle. Toktahu brought 48 people into the Buryat Mongolian tribe on Lake Baikal in Russia. In 1911, Tauktahu arrived in Kulun, the capital of Kharkha Mongolia.

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  Chronology of events:

 

 

Tauktahu Uprising

 

 

 

The Sun Yat-sen League leads the uprising

 

1905

Taoketaohu opposed the Manchu dynasty to reclaim the grassland.

 

Sun Yat-sen established the League in Japan.

1906—1910

The Tauktahu uprising and fought in Inner Mongolia and Northeast China for 4 years.

 

Sun Yat-sen raised funds overseas and organized about ten uprisings in the south.

The Qing Dynasty died in 1911


 

陶克陶胡与孙中山同盟会起义转战等时间对照表

陶克陶胡

 

孙中山

   1864年5月13日出生于哲里木盟郭尔罗斯前旗(今吉林省松原市)

 

   1866年11月12日出生于广东省香山县(今中山县)

   1900年哲理木盟辖科尔沁6旗和前郭尔罗斯等共十旗,百年间已放垦1千多万亩草原。

 

   1895、1900年孙中山两次发动反清武装起义失败。

   1905年哲理木盟盟长又要放垦,前郭贵族陶克陶胡代表失地牧民上访,被盟长下令打50大板。

 

   1905年8月,孙中山在日本“黑龙会”首领内田良平牵线下,在东京山头满私宅二楼榻榻米房内,成立同盟会,提出“驱除鞑虏,恢复中华,创立民国,平均地权”。

 

   1906年9月—1910年4月,陶克陶胡武装起义,在中国北方哲盟、锡盟草原,对抗满清张作霖和蒙古旗兵几千军队联合围剿,转战四年,极大的撼动、拖住清朝在北方的军事力量,与南方孙中山起义成了犄角之势。
    1910年4月,陶克陶胡经西乌旗在古日班柴达木对抗清朝22旗军队,陶克陶胡长子战死(至此,陶克陶胡的儿子中有三人战死或失踪)。陶克陶胡带48人进入俄罗斯境内贝加尔湖畔的布里亚特蒙古部落。
    1911年,清朝灭亡,外蒙古宣布独立,陶克陶胡进入大库伦(今乌兰巴托)。
    1921年7月19日,蒙古宣布成立立宪政府(7月11日为蒙古国国庆日至今)。

 

 

   1905—1910年,孙中山同盟会在南方共发动约10次起义(最长约30天)均失败。
    1910年,孙中山到美国、日本、马来西亚筹资,继续策划反清起义。
    1911年,武昌起义,南方14省宣布独立,清朝灭亡。
    1911年12月29日,南方17省代表在南京选举孙中山为中华民国临时大总统。
    1912年1月1日,孙中山宣誓就职,宣告中华民国诞生。

   1924年4月,陶克陶胡在大库伦(乌兰巴托)逝世,天葬于达兰达胡尔。

 

   1925年3月12日,孙中山逝世于北平(北京)。

 

Schematic diagram of the positions of Tauktaohu and Sun Yat-sen Alliance in the uprising of Manchu and Qing Dynasty (1906-1910)

 

 

The Qing Dynasty died in 1911 and the Republic of China was established. In 1911, Kharkha Mongolia declared its "independence" and Tauktahu entered the capital of Kharkha Mongolia, Kulun. In 1921, the People's Republic of Mongolia was established; In 1921, the Communist Party of China was established. In 1949, the People's Republic of China was established.

 


     
生态背景

 

    一万年以来,亚洲中部以400毫米降水线为界,存在着两种不同的生态系统和生物:森林生态系统--几百种针叶、阔叶林带和鹿、大象、老虎、犀牛(河南古称‘豫’就是证明);草原生态系统--低矮的千种禾本科豆科植物和黄羊、旱獭、狼等野生动物。

    3千年来森林生态系统中的人类以几种植物种子为主要食物开垦森林并形成了农耕文明,至今原来的森林生态系统和野生动物几乎全部消亡。

2遥感照片中国华北森林生态系统基本不复存在。

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      百年生态对比

 

    清亡百年来不同政体的生物多样性和生态系统已经出现巨大差距,中国人口已至少增加3倍,为了增加粮食产量,过分依靠各种除虫药、除草剂和化肥已经造成农业生态问题;已有2000万人口进入干旱的内蒙古,大片草原被开垦,草原生态系统明显退化。

    而蒙古国草原植被和以迁徙黄羊、狼为代表的动物包括迁徙候鸟等生态系统仍保存完整。

    下面是我们十年来进行的中国、蒙古国草原生态对比考察成果和收集的部分生态保护资料:

3、蒙古国克鲁伦河(黑龙江上游)草原景色(2011)和内蒙古乌拉盖河流域荒漠化草原(2015)对比

 


4乌珠穆沁草原由于外人截断乌拉盖河生态用水,乌拉盖湿地荒漠化。中央电视台焦点访谈《湿地正在失去2015623日)

 

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中国、蒙古国草原生态保护对比考察,及案例对比照片

 
5
、蒙古国有天鹅的风景(2011)

5内蒙古正蓝旗被外来人毒杀的200多只天鹅照片(2016

 

 

 

    曾经草原点评:

    我们纪念反清的伟人,第一,要研究、还原历史,以史为鉴;第二,要继续顺应世界潮流”——崇尚生态文明、实施宪政、保护 生物多样性和倡导可持续发展。

 

 


 

参考资料:

 

1、《蒙古族通史·陶克陶领导的武装抗垦起义》,内蒙古社科院历史所,民族出版社2001年版

2、《陶克陶事迹》(义都合西格整理,内蒙古人民出版社1962年版)

3、《蒙古高原游牧文化发展趋势的比较研究》(易津、陈继群、乌云其木格)

4、《蒙古地志》(柏原孝久、滨田纯一著,大正八年,即1919年出版)

5、《查干湖的传说及其郭尔罗斯史话》(苏赫巴鲁、乌银、珊丹著)

6、《中国、蒙古国草原联合考察》论文集(曾经草原网站
      
http://cnsteppe.com/go1_steppestudy.htm
 

7《中央电视台焦点访谈<湿地正在失去>2015623日)》 文字版
    
http://www.chinanews.com/m/shipin/2015/06-23/news578987.shtml?from=singlemessage